The winners of the Nobel Prize in Economics were just announced this week – Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapely. Their research had to do with market structures and pairing; that is, how to optimally organize and pair exchanges in a market. Their research utilizes a lot of game theory and covers kidney markets, education markets, and even marriage [markets?].
Here’s a short video that has Doctor Roth explaining a little bit of how this idea is applied in the kidney markets. (He appears at around 1:10 in the video)